the year 1796 was founded the town of Santa Catalina de Guantánamo.
When the Spaniards arrived, the region was inhabited by the Taino
Amerindians. The Tainos, characterized by devoting themselves to
ceramics and agriculture, were also one of the most rebellious groups
who rejected the Spanish conquerors. Therefore, this region is considered
the one that triggered the struggle against colonial domain. The
aboriginals of the territory were led first by cacique Hatuey, who
had come from the neighbor island of Quisquella (aboriginal name
for today's Dominican Republic and Haiti) to alert Cuban natives
about the cruelty of the Spaniards. Hatuey was burned alive by the
conquerors in a site near Yara. However, he was not the only one.
In that same region, the cacique Guamá managed to maintain
an effective guerrilla warfare along the period going from 1522
to 1533, when he was murdered.
Baracoa is a municipality of the Guantanamo province. It stands
out owing to the fact that it has been the only town, out of the
six founded by the Spaniards, that has remained in its original
The historical value of this region becomes even more notable because
400 years after those first struggles, took place in the beach of
Duaba, east from Baracoa, the disembark of 27 expeditionaries led
by General Antonio Maceo, his brother José Maceo, and General
Flor Crombet. Less than 11 days after that, at Playitas de Cajobabo
in Baracoa southern coast, took place the disembark of another group
led by José Martí, mastermind and leader of the second
stage of the independence wars of the 19th century, and General
Maximo Gómez, commander of the Liberation Army.
During that war, the inhospitable mountains of this region were
the scenario of numberless revolutionary actions. During the period
1953-1958 this was the zone of operation of Columns 18 and 20 of
the Rebel Army. Towards the northwest of this zone, operated column
19, José Tey, also belonging to the second eastern front,